## IB Physics Glossary

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Special | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | ALL

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### F

states, the induced emf is proportional to the rate of change of magnetic flux linkage:

$$\epsilon \propto \frac{\Delta \Phi}{\Delta t}$$.
 Keyword(s): 12.1

#### First law of thermodynamics

states, $$Q = \Delta U + W$$.
Where
Q is the heat supplied to system, $$\Delta U$$ is the change in the internal energy, W is the work done by gas, all in Joules. It is the law of conservation of energy.

Note
a. Q > 0, heat in; Q < 0, heat out

b. $$\Delta U > 0, \Delta T > 0$$; $$\Delta U < 0, \Delta T < 0$$

c. W > 0
, work done by gas; W < 0, work done on gas.
 Keyword(s): 10.1

#### Force field

is a region of space where masses/charges feel a force.

#### Forced oscillations

occur when an object is forced to oscillate by a periodic external force. (d)
 Keyword(s): 4.3

#### Fuel enrichment

Enrichment is the process by which the isotopic composition of a nuclear fuel is increased to make nuclear fissions more likely. Typically, uranium fuel rods are enriched, via neutron bombardment, to ensure that the percentage content of uranium-235 is increased.
 Keyword(s): 8.3

#### Fundamental units

are the most basic units which cannot be expressed in terms of other units. The seven fundamental units are
1. meter (m);
2. second (s);
3. kilogram (kg);
4. Kelvin (K);
5. The Ampere (A);
6. mole (mol);
7. candela (cd).
 Keyword(s): 1.2

### G

#### g versus E

 Gravitational Electric Force $$F = G \frac{m_1 m_2}{r^2}$$ $$F = k \frac{q_1 q_2}{r^2}$$ Constant G k Field strength $$g = \frac{F}{m} = G \frac{M}{r^2}$$$$F = m g$$ $$E = \frac{F}{q} = G \frac{Q}{r^2}$$$$F = q E$$ Other details Force is always attractive Force can be attractive (for like charges) or repulsive (for opposite charges) Acts on particles with mass with electric charge
 Keyword(s): 6.2

#### Galactic cluster

is a collection of galaxies grouped together due to the gravitational attraction between them. (d)
 Keyword(s): E1

#### Galactic supercluster

is a group of galactic clusters. (d)
 Keyword(s): E1

#### Galaxy

is a large group of stars gravitationally bound together (approx. 1010 stars, diameter 105 ly). (d)
 Keyword(s): E1

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