IB Physics Glossary

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Law of Conservation of Charge

states that the total charge of a closed system is constant.

Law of Conservation of Energy

states, energy cannot be created or destroyed but is converted from one form into another or the total amount of energy in the universe is constant.

Law of conservation of momentum

states, the total momentum of an system remains constant if no external forces act on the system.

Lenz's law

states the direction of the induced emf is such as to tend to oppose the change producing it. (s)


ly, is the distance traveled by light in one year in a vacuum or empty space. (d)

Linear momentum

is the product of mass and velocity, p= m v. (d)

Log-log plots

are used to find the value of the exponent n and coefficient a for the general relationship  y= a x^n.
The value of the gradient for the log-log plot equals n and a= log^{-1}{(\text{y-intercept})}.
For example
A linear relationship should have n \approx 1;
A square-root relationship should have n \approx \frac{1}{2};
A quadratic relationship should have value n \approx 2;
An inverse-square relationship should have value n \approx -2.


least significant bit is the right-most or the trailing bit in a binary number.


is the power radiated or energy radiated per unit time by a star. (d)