states that current is proportional to voltage, at constant temperature, . (d)
The graph should be a straight line passing through the origin.
For non-ohmic conductors current is not proportional to voltage, . The graph is non-linear. Examples of non-Ohmic conductors include
as gradient is not constant, or, as gradient is not constant.
Typical graphs can be
y-axis: I, x-axis: V, gradient decreases;
y-axis: V, x-axis: I, gradient increases.
NTC (negative temperaure coefficient): ;
PTC (positive temperature coefficent): .
- Light dependent resistors (LDRs)
brightness , ;
a variation in strain of a material (deformation per unit length due to the effect of an applied load/mass) produces a variation in electrical resistance of material
of substance has as many molecules as there are atoms in 12g of Carbon-12. (d)
is approximately 2-3 solar masses for mass of core for Super Red Giant;
for core masses < 2-3 solar masses (above 1.4 solar masses) Neutron star
for core masses > 2-3 solar masses Black hole.
substances rotate the plane of polarization of the incident light. The amount of rotation may depend on the concentration of the substance/solution and the amount/length/thickness.
occurs when the gravitation provides the centripetal force for circular orbital motion: .