## IB Physics Glossary

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### P

#### Parallel plates

For parallel plates, of separation d, with a potential/voltage difference ΔV across the plates, the electric field, E, is given by
$$E=\frac{\Delta V}{d}$$.

The electric field is uniform or constant between the plates.

Examples     #### Parsec

is the distance to a star whose parallax angle is 1 arc-second. (d)
 Keyword(s): E3

#### Phase difference

$$\phi$$, is the difference in phase angle between two oscillations with the same frequency. (d)
 Keyword(s): 4.1

#### Photopic vision

is color vision which occurs at normal light levels. Vision is aided by the three different cone cells, S (for short-wavelengths or blue), M (for medium-wavelengths or green) and L (for long-wavelengths or red).
 Keyword(s): A1

#### Polarization

of light occurs when the direction of the electric field oscillations is in the same plane. (d)
 Keyword(s): 4

#### Potential divider rule

is used to calculate the potential difference which is shared between components, R1 and R2, placed in series:  where $$R_1 + R_2$$ is the total resistance and E is the emf.

Note

$$E=V_{R1}+V_{R2}$$

for equal resistances, $$R_1=R_2$$, the potential difference is shared equally between the resistances

for unequal resistances, $$R_1 \ne R_2$$, the potentail difference is not shared equally but will be greater across the resistance with highest value.
 Keyword(s): 5.2

#### Potential energy

is a stored form of energy available to do work.
 Keyword(s): 2.3

#### Power

is the rate at which work is done. (d)
 Keyword(s): 2.3

#### Precision

tells us how consistent repeated measurements are. A precise set of measurements are relatively closer together. An imprecise set of measurements are spread apart.
 Keyword(s): 1.2

#### Pressure

is the force per unit area. (d)
 Keyword(s): 3.2

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