IB Physics Glossary



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V

Vector addition/subtraction

\vec{A}:
x- or horizontal component A_H=A \cos \theta;
y- or vertical component A_V= A \sin \theta;
magnitude A=\sqrt{A_H^2 + A_V^2};
\tan \theta = \frac{A_V}{A_H}.
\vec{B}:
x- or horizontal component B_H=B \cos \theta;
y- or vertical component B_V= B \sin \theta;
magnitude B=\sqrt{B_H^2 + B_V^2};
tan \theta =\frac{B_V}{B_H}.

Addition
\vec{C} = \vec{A} + \vec{B}:
x- or horizontal component C_H=A_H + B_H;
y- or vertical component C_V= A_V + B_V;
magnitude C=\sqrt{C_H^2 + C_V^2};
tan \theta =\frac{C_V}{C_H}.

Subtraction
\vec{C} = \vec{A} - \vec{B} = \vec{A} + (\vec{-B}):
x- or horizontal component C_H=A_H - B_H;
y- or vertical component C_V= A_V - B_V;
magnitude C=\sqrt{C_H^2 + C_V^2};
tan \theta =\frac{C_V}{C_H}.

Vector quantites

have magnitude and direction. Direction or changes in direction have an effect on vector quantities. Examples include displacement, velocity, acceleration, force, momentum and field strength.

Velocity

is the rate of change of displacement. (d)
v=\frac{\Delta s}{\Delta t}.

Visual binary stars

are stars of a system that are visible as separate stars (with unaided eye or through a telescope/binoculars)

Voltmeter

measures potential difference across a component. It is placed parallel to the component. An ideal voltmeter has infinite resistance so that no current flows through it.