## IB Physics Glossary

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### V

$$\vec{A}$$:
x- or horizontal component $$A_H=A \cos \theta$$;
y- or vertical component $$A_V= A \sin \theta$$;
magnitude $$A=\sqrt{A_H^2 + A_V^2}$$;
$$\tan \theta = \frac{A_V}{A_H}$$.
$$\vec{B}$$:
x- or horizontal component $$B_H=B \cos \theta$$;
y- or vertical component $$B_V= B \sin \theta$$;
magnitude $$B=\sqrt{B_H^2 + B_V^2}$$;
$$tan \theta =\frac{B_V}{B_H}$$.

$$\vec{C} = \vec{A} + \vec{B}$$:
x- or horizontal component $$C_H=A_H + B_H$$;
y- or vertical component $$C_V= A_V + B_V$$;
magnitude $$C=\sqrt{C_H^2 + C_V^2}$$;
$$tan \theta =\frac{C_V}{C_H}$$.

Subtraction
$$\vec{C} = \vec{A} - \vec{B} = \vec{A} + (\vec{-B})$$:
x- or horizontal component $$C_H=A_H - B_H$$;
y- or vertical component $$C_V= A_V - B_V$$;
magnitude $$C=\sqrt{C_H^2 + C_V^2}$$;
$$tan \theta =\frac{C_V}{C_H}$$.
 Keyword(s): 1.3

#### Vector quantites

have magnitude and direction. Direction or changes in direction have an effect on vector quantities. Examples include displacement, velocity, acceleration, force, momentum and field strength.
 Keyword(s): 1.3

#### Velocity

is the rate of change of displacement. (d)
$$v=\frac{\Delta s}{\Delta t}$$.
 Keyword(s): 2.1

#### Visual binary stars

are stars of a system that are visible as separate stars (with unaided eye or through a telescope/binoculars)
 Keyword(s): E2

#### Voltmeter

measures potential difference across a component. It is placed parallel to the component. An ideal voltmeter has infinite resistance so that no current flows through it.
 Keyword(s): 5.2